occurs when the middle of the toe points upwards abnormally. This most often occurs in
the second toe, and is often the result of a big toe bunion pushing on the second toe. A painful callous often forms on top of the first joint in the toe. Treatment of a hammer toe may consist of
simple padding of the callous on top of the toe, as well as buying appropriate footwear. The best shoes for patients with a hammer toe will have a wide toebox, no pressure on the end of the toe, and
will not press on a bunion (which may cause worsening of the hammer toe).
A hammertoe is formed due an abnormal balance of the muscles in the toes. This abnormal balance causes increased pressures on the tendons and joints of the toe, leading to its contracture. Heredity
and trauma can also lead to the formation of a hammertoe. Arthritis is another factor, because the balance around the toe in people with arthritis is so disrupted that a hammertoe may develop.
Wearing shoes that are too tight and cause the toes to squeeze can also be a cause for a hammertoe to form.
The most obvious sign of hammertoes are bent toes, other symptoms may include pain and stiffness during movement of the toe. Painful corns on the tops of the toe or toes from rubbing against the top
of the shoe's toe box. Painful calluses on the bottoms of the toe or toes. Pain on the bottom of the ball of the foot. Redness and swelling at the joints.
Some questions your doctor may ask of you include, when did you first begin having foot problems? How much pain are your feet or toes causing you? Where is the pain located? What, if anything, seems
to improve your symptoms? What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms? What kind of shoes do you normally wear? Your doctor can diagnose hammertoe or mallet toe by examining your foot. Your
doctor may also order X-rays to further evaluate the bones and joints of your feet and toes.
Non Surgical Treatment
Treatment for a hammertoe usually depends on the stage of the hammertoe and the cause of the condition. If your toe is still bendable, your doctor may suggest conservative care-relieving pressure
with padding and strapping, or proper shoes that have a deep toe box and are of adequate length and width. Early intervention can often prevent the need for surgery.
If this fails or if treatment is not sought until the toes are permanently misaligned, then surgery may be required. Surgery may involve either hammertoe
cutting the tendon or fusing the joint. Congenital conditions should be
treated in early childhood with manipulations and splinting.